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78-31-036 Rome, "vertical" of buttress archess on S side of SS. Giovanni e Paolo

Rome, "vertical" of buttress archess on S side of SS. Giovanni e Paolo (Professor Fred Winter, 1978)

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78-31-029 Rome, Aqua Claudia, three preserved sections on the Caelian of the branch to the Palatine

Rome, Aqua Claudia, three preserved sections on the Caelian of the branch to the Palatine (Professor Fred Winter, 1978)

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From the early Archaic through the end of the Classical periods for a Greek city-state to be an independent, viable political entity it needed to be economically self-sufficient and able to defend its citizens and its territory from neighboring, opportunistic poleis. The defense of the city-state depended upon a trained citizen army and well-built and maintained fortification walls around its urban core. Over time as military tactics evolved and new military siege technologies were developed the wall and gate systems became more complex and substantial.

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